Subdomains and SEO - Pros and Cons of Subdomains vs Subdirectories

By Michael Kramer // Mar 14, 2013 at 04:58 PM

This has been an extremely educational article for 1,000's of companies. If you determine you want to create subdomain websites, please consider the experience of the Author to consult with before spending unnecessary expense to create or maintain your subdomain websites. Please leave a secure message for Michael Kramer.

What is a Subdomain?


Every website has a subdomain.  In the example, the subdomain is "www".  It's the section just before your main domain, or "top-level" domain, By default, each top-level domain has a subdomain of "www".  You can replace the www with a different subdomain.  One of the best examples I can give of an extremely successful subdomain website is  After you go to this page, click to a different city.  You will see the website looks exactly the same, but the URL has changed to a different subdomain. Each subdomain website is Search Engine Optimized for that city.

What is a Subdirectory?

Subdirectories, also referred to as Folders, are any extsion of the main domain.  For example  The word "blog" is a subdirectory of the main domain.

What Are The 3 Most Common Reasons to Use Subdomains?

  1. Serving Different Regions - You have multiple geographic regions, and your clients search for your products or services within each region.  For example, if you had a pet store and you wanted to open locations in 5 different cities, you would create subdomain websites for each region. would be your main Corporate website, and each city would have a subdomain site,,, etc.
  2. Franchises - If your company offers franchises, then you help your franchisee by givin them their own website, so they can optimize the content for their region.
  3. Different Product Lines - Within your company, your products or services vary enough that you want to focus the homepage of each subdomain site on niches within your product line.  The reason to do this is, niche websites perform better in search engines and convert more visitors than other websites.  For example, let's say you sell most anything to do with kitchens.  You sell applicances, silverware, utencils, towels, cookware, etc.   If a website visitor is looking for dish towels, and they see kitchen appliances on your homepage, they are not convinced that you can provide a good selection of dish towels.  But, if you had a subdomain website called, this site would tend to rank higher in the search engines, because the keyword "dishtowels" is in the domain, and therefore associated with every page of the website.  Also the website visitor now considers your website an "authority" in dishtowels.
    To convert visitors to clients, you 1st develop Trust, then build a relationship, then you can do business.  Having a subdomain site with a niche product line is a strong step in building trust with your visitors. 

Pros and Cons of Subdirectory:

  1. Pros:
    1. One monthly hosting fee
    2. One Content Management System for all regions
  2. Cons:
    1. You are personally responsible to collect and maintain content for every region
    2. People running the regional business for each subdirectory would not be able to modify the website to optimize it for their region.
    3. Assuming the product for your business is targeted to multiple regions, there usually isn't enough content on the site for any one specific region to let the Search Engines give any one region more importance than a site that was optimzed for only one region. For example, if you have a 50-page website and you only dedicate two pages per region, those two pages are deluted by all the other pages of the website.

Pros and Cons of Subdomain:

  1. Pros:
    1. Multiple Websites- Each subdomain is considred a separate website, with each website having it's own Google PageRank.  PageRank is Google's way of letting you know how important of each page of your website.
    2. Total Web Domination - By having multiple websites, you have more opportunity to show up multiple times in a search engine results page, therefore pushing other websites down the page and achieving "Total Web Domination"
    3. Local Control - The people running the local business can have control over thier own content.  For example, in the example of, they might have a weekly promotion for best pet photo of the week.  They would have control over their subdomain website to post a new photo each week.
    4. Local Optimization of each page - Because the subdomain has the word "Denver", every page of this site is automatically associated with business in Denver.
    5. Promotion of Main Domain - because each subdomain has the main domain in it's URL, it ties all subdomain sites back to the main domain, which would have more corporate information and promotion of each subdomain.
    6. Internal and External Linking - Google gives websites better PageRank if there are external websites linking to pages of your website, or links within your website, to other pages of your website.  In the case of multiple subdomain websites you would cross-link the sites to help each site get better Ranking in Google.  As of the summer of 2011, Google considers all linking between subdomain websites, to the main domain or other subdomains an internal link.
  2. Cons:
    1. Additional Hosting Fees - because subdomains are hosted on separate hosting accounts, you will usually encur hosting fees for each subdomain website.  Some companies, like SiteNinja CMS, give discounts for multiple hosting accounts. 
    2. Content Moderation - Because you are giving more control to the people managing the regional subdomain website, you have a responsibility to moderate content that is place on those sites, to make sure that content is consistent with your company 

Your Tips and Tricks

If you have your own Tips, Tricks or testimonials about subdomains, please leave a comment to this article.  I'm all about helping you and others be successful with your websites.

Posted in SEO and CMS.

Jun 30, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Really good post! Your post has given very valuable information. Its very helpful while targeting many regions to target our website.

Jul 21, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

My God,

I must commend you on this article. I am a web developer and spend almost 20 out of 24hrs online. Of all the sites I have visited, and tutorials or info sites read. This by far the most well put together article I have ever read with such clarity.

It was easy to understand and well written. I am therefore taking the time to leave you a reply and say thank you.

Great job.


Aug 01, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply
JD Lee

Simply the best and most clear perspective on this sometimes confusing topic. Thank you for the clarity of thought put into words!


Aug 05, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Sub-directory could make visitors feel less important, Subdomain is better in this case. But the subdomains must have close connection to the root domain. I is really hard to make a decision between subdoman and a new domain.

Aug 14, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Well defined arguments Michael. I work with many individual locations of franchise networks and multi-location businesses and we have been referred to the corporate level by several over the last few month to provide proposals on bringing their individual location based sites (many of which were dup content laden clones) to a centralized domain.

I have been researching and weighing the pros and cons of this exact point for some time now so I certainly appreciate your perspective and the clearly defined points you presented in this article.

Aug 15, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Another good example of subdomains is when you have a huge collection of users in your system.

A prime example would be instead of placing all the user accounts on the root

Oct 26, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Clarified my confusion by listing down the differences in a very clear manner.. Good Job

Nov 22, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

Thanks for the well written article above. It's clearly one of the best on this topic so far.
Now I know subdomain will be my best choice for my individual product subdomain.


Nov 27, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply
John A Grindle

Great Article, I agree with your thinking. One of the great difficulties of SEO is how much conflicting advice their is out there. Everyone has an opinion, and google deliberately makes it so that its not 'cut and dry'. A few things I would like to add. I find myself in a situation where I have a company that serves a 35 mile radius including about 20 cities. Because the company has been around for 100 years they won't change their name. But their name sucks for SEO. Its Http:// Wordpress likes to toss it all into categories of course. I wanted a landing page for each city. So what I was looking at was: Http:// It is known that google assigns a higher value tothe first 3 to five words in a domain name. Furthermore, domain names work better when they are short. I.E. //FACEBOOK.COM The local strategy I want to implement is all about rich keywords tied to the location. Even though most people out there say I am a fool for doing it I needed a shorter name. So I bout a keyword rich domain. http:// and I pointed off of the main site to wordpress multi-install for various subdomains. So I have a subdomain for each city of an alternate domain that I feel will perform better. This gives me far more control over each site and maximizes the local relevance. It flies in the face of convention, but it works.

Dec 30, 2013 Arrow1 Down Reply

I want to confirm that if we create a sub domain of our site then SEO effect (both positive and negative) of sub domain transfer to main domain and Vice-Versa ?

Jan 15, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Here is what you wrote in your article:

In the example, the subdomain is "www". It's the section just before your main domain, or "top-level" domain.

A top level domain (TLD) in your example is '.com', and not 'google'. 'google' in your example is a host name. As such a sub-domain is the section just before your HOST NAME, and not "top-level domain".

Feb 23, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Really good information. I prefer subdomains

Mar 18, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

What about using a subdomain for a blog if the main domain is an eCommerce site and that server doesn't play nice with good blog software, such as WordPress? My intention for the blog is to drive traffic for eCommerce.

Mar 25, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great article! It really provided the clarification I was looking for.


Apr 07, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Actually from an SEO point of View and from personal trial and error. looks nicer, but suffers penalties is denver doesn't keep good SEO practices as well.
While doesn't matter as the's SEO will take presidence. When I started on The SEO numbers for dropped from 98 to 63 even after being fully optimized. Whereas, the other way it stayed the exact same.

Apr 30, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Note, using subdomains this way doesn't work as well and in some cases leads to Penguin issues (building unnatural links, when all subdomains link back to www). Doing the is quickly becoming black hat (especially if you are generating hundreds of city subdomains linking back to www).

May 29, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great article Michael. I've been doing a lot of research on this myself and still think it's a 50-50 decision. I'd like your opinion though, if I owned are you saying that I would be better off utilizing the name with sub-domains say as;; or as, etc.? I thought the former would be better and then have the option to apply say a city and state as sub-directories so what I'd end up with is: versus Any thoughts on what you think would be better from both a business and SEO point of view?

Jun 16, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Awesome article!
Great job.
I have a domain and a sub domain that describes two aspects of my business, WordPress plugins -
and WordPress web development -
I couldn't write it better myself, there are loads of benefits to having a sub domain!

Jun 26, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

I believe sub domains work! great article..

Jul 12, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Thank you for this very clear and concise article.

Oct 04, 2014 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great article! I'm looking to dominate my local areas with city specific pages and this is a great tip! I'm going to try it and I'll let everyone know in a few weeks how it pans out!

Mar 16, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply
Datashire Team

Thanks for the article. Great article. Cleared lot of doubts.

Apr 29, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply

I too feel the same sub domain also has good value in google page rank.

Jun 21, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply
Eric Grimaldi

Hello and thank you for your very interesting and informative article. Exactly the kind of info we were looking for!
I dare asking a question a bit out of subject, but maybe you can advise us.
We have several products' sub-domains that are OK but have unending problems with our main site, we would like to replace it, but not the sub-domains. Which would be the safest way? we believe that a migration from the main site might be more problems than re-creating a site from scratch. Our PR was high and got to 0 after previous modifications, what would be the safest way not to loose again our PR while changing sites?
Thanks and regards,

Jun 22, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply
Michael Kramer

@Eric Grimaldi: Hi Eric, If are wanting to change your domain name, you can safely replace your main site and keep your high Domain Authority. You must register both domains with with Inside that tool is the ability to tell Google you are replacing the domain. I've done this successfully and kept the PageRank and Domain Authority.

If you want to keep the domain, but replace the pages with a new site, you need to set up 301 Redirects for every URL in your current website. For example, if your About page was and the new About page is, you can tell Google, through a 301 perminant redirect that all PageRank is to be passed to the new page. Depending on the server your website is being hosted will determine what script you will use for the redirects. Here is a listing of the most common servers and redirects scripts,
If you have questions, feel free to call me 805-456-6011.

Oct 12, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply

Hi there,
Wonderful article and neat explanation ,one thing i want to make clear that , as you said in the article about internal and external links , if we give internal linking between our websites then google may consider it as a practice of link farming or spamming iam sorry if im wrong . for external linking we can give linking to websites like wikipedia which is very popular among netizens.

Thank You

Nov 03, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply

You missed some important problems with subdomains:

1) Caching of resources is a big headache unless you use a cdn
2) DNS lookup delays switch between two subdomains, that is unfavorable to user experience

Nov 16, 2015 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great Article to clear out confusion between Subdomains and Subdirectories!

Jan 27, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Good post about the Pros & Cons of Subdomains and Subdirectories.

I read other post on recommending the use of Subdirectories for better SEO.
Thank you for your clear post.

Jan 30, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply
Fabian Amran

Cross linking is not good practice for SEO.

Feb 08, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great Article,

But I am little bit confused on one thing.

Is it possible to have several links of sub domain on every page of main domain?
E.g If a user searches any query on main domain a link to sub domain is also there for his query Is it possible? And dose it make any affect on SEO.

Thank you

Feb 21, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Nice article... I have some doubts

For (eg)
If I create 3 sub domain and do same amount of SEO for all 3 pages.. Traffic will be good for all those 3 sub domain. But I need to take all those traffic from the sub domains to the main URL(home page).. Is this possible?

Mar 04, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply
Arsalan A

its a great article.

Mar 21, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Google offers a free search tools that will allow you to search multiple domains or sub domains,

Apr 27, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Fantastic Article this was the PERFECT explanation. and i am not a developer.
Thank you!

May 06, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

According to Google Ranking Factors (, subdomains ( are often viewed as separate websites by Google, as compared to subfolders (yoursite/thing), which are not. This has obvious implications with many other factors on this page. Matt Cutts called subfolders/subdomains "roughly equivalent" in 2012, confirming this now happens less often, but still happens. Panda recovery stories post-2012 such as HubPages migration from subfolders/subdomains, prove that it still can be a major factor.

The number of subdomains on a site appears to be the most significant factor in determining whether subdomains are each treated as their own sites. Using an extremely large number of subdomains, although not a terribly easy thing to do by mistake, could theoretically cause Google to treat one site like many sites, or many sites like one site.

Jun 12, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

We are thinking of offering subdomains for local business (in a major west african city) to use it as their business website. This would come at monthly fee and give them the opportunity to have an online presence for a very little amount. Any pros, cons or advise...? Thanks in advance!

Oct 04, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply

Great Article! Got a clear idea.
Thank you!

Dec 16, 2016 Arrow1 Down Reply
Keith Aymar

Love the article. It was short and to the point and was exactly what I was looking for!

Keith Aymar

Feb 06, 2017 Arrow1 Down Reply
Aimen HDW

Believe it or not, I've never read an article like this ! This article is so clear and covers all the informations in a couple of sentences

Thank you sir , keep up the good work
Ps: since this post has been written in 2013 i hope you're alive , if not R.I.P lool

Mar 16, 2017 Arrow1 Down Reply
Jimmy Dolo

I am an internet newbie and I am just starting my website.

I was thinking that sub-domains are basically a plus from the package so you can create website for free.

Is it really because of regional usage so sub-domains are offered?

Mar 16, 2017 Arrow1 Down Reply

This by far is the best article on the subject: Subdomain Vs Subdirectory.

Jun 14, 2017 Arrow1 Down Reply

Believe it or not , we have a platform for franchises and multiple business owners and subdomains help us with geolocation, and makes it much easier to add new pages and fresh content , also with subdomains you can have your team working on different tasks without waiting for someone to finish their job, so it's a lot faster to work on.

Feb 13, 2018 Arrow1 Down Reply

@Ronnie: What do you think an extremely large number would be? Over 100? 500? Or are we talking thousands?

Jun 12, 2018 Arrow1 Down Reply

hi, good content is written but my view is totally different from most of the people instead of creating multiple focus on one domain with good content and make it authoritative rather than creating many subdomain, even people won't remember subdomains they prefer to remember single word that creates brand to be remembered by visiters, so this is not a good method I feel

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